WARNING - This is a High Voltage circuit! Using Flyback transformers without due care and attention is DANGEROUS. Lethal voltage and current is present when operating this circuit. The author is not responsible for anything which occurs by constructing or operating this circuit!
There are lots of tutorials and videos on YouTube and Instructables about this subject. I used the site below as my inspiration:
Here is the schematic diagram for the circuit:
The circuit is fairly simple in operation. Power is supplied via a standard 12 Vdc 5 amp power supply via the DC barrel socket or via the 5 mm screw terminal JP1. The 12 volt supply is smoothed by the 100 uF and 100 nF capacitors.
The main part of the circuit is made up of a 555 timer in astable mode. Astable means there will be a constantly repeating 12 volt peak square present at pin 3. The frequency of the square wave is set by the 50 k potentiometer RV1. The mark space ratio of the square wave (the width of each pulse and the gap between each pulse) is set by the 50 k potentiometer RV2. The output at pin 3 is used to drive two bipolar transistors which in turn drive a high current, high voltage N-type MOSFET. The MOSFET will drive a flyback transformer which will have it's output at the secondary spaced so as to draw a high voltage arc. The flyback transformer will be connected externally via the 5 mm screw terminal JP3.
The audio signal for the plasma speaker will be coupled to the circuit via the 5 mm screw terminal JP2. This will take in a standard audio signal either from an audio amplifier or directly from an audio source such as an MP3 player or a signal generator - I haven't decided yet!
To make things easy for me and to ensure this circuit works as intended I simulated the circuit first. It works perfectly well. The voltage generated by flyback transformer at the secondary should be around 1.7 kV assuming I have guessed at the turns ratio of the flyback transformer correctly.
I then designed a printed circuit board for the circuit. I find it much easier to lay circuit boards out than to use stripboard to create circuits however stripboard would work perfectly well.
Here is the PCB layout:
|Plasma Speaker Top Layer|
|Plasma Speaker Bottom Layer|
|Both layers with dimensions|
Just for fun I've rendered the circuit in 3D using Sketchup so that I can visualise how the circuit will look once it is complete. It also means I can spot any potential construction and layout issues before I etch and populate the PCB.
|Isometric Render of populated Plasma Speaker PCB|
|Top View of Plasma Speaker PCB|
|Part||Value||Description||Vendor||Part Number||Cost (£)|
|C1||10 nF||Ceramic Capacitor||Farnell||1141772||0.0851|
|C2||100 nF||Ceramic Capacitor||Farnell||1141775||0.0721|
|C3||220 nF||Ceramic Capacitor||Farnell||2395774||0.132|
|C4||100 nF||Ceramic Capacitor||Farnell||1141775||0.0721|
|C5||100 uF||Electrolytic Capacitor||Farnell||2346578||0.1178|
|D1||UF4007||High Speed Diode||Farnell||4085310||0.372|
|IC1||ICM7555||CMOS 555 timer||Farnell||9488243||0.528|
|J1||n/a||2.5mm DC barrel Jack||Farnell||1737246||0.469|
|JP1||n/a||5mm Screw terminal||Farnell||2493614||0.16|
|JP2||n/a||5mm Screw terminal||Farnell||2493614||0.16|
|JP3||n/a||5mm Screw terminal||Farnell||2493614||0.16|
|JP4||Jumper||2 pin header||Farnell||3418285||0.27|
|KK1||SK104 Heatsink||TO247 Heatsink||Farnell||1892329||1.06|
|Q1||BC549||TO92 NPN Transistor||Farnell||2453797||0.232|
|Q2||BC559||TO92 PNP Transistor||Farnell||2453808||0.232|
|Q3||IRFP250||TO247 High Power MOSFET||Farnell||8649260||1.26|
|R1||270 Ohms||¼ Watt Carbon film Resistor||Farnell||9339353||0.0356|
|R2||22 Ohms||1 Watt Carbon Film Resistor||Farnell||1565366||0.0664|
|R3||150 Ohms||1 Watt Carbon Film Resistor||Farnell||1565346||0.0664|
|RV1||100 k-Ohms||ALPS PCB mount Potentiometer||Farnell||1191742||1.28|
|RV2||100 k-Ohms||ALPS PCB mount Potentiometer||Farnell||1191742||1.28|
The total cost of components, not including the PCB or flyback transformer will be:
Flyback transformers can be very easily sourced from old televisions, junk shops and everyone's favourite online auction site:
Ebay - Flyback Transformer
They are currently on sale for £7.81 - I remember them being cheaper but they are becoming more rare!
I'm guessing at the cost of making and etching a PCB for this project at £3.00
That brings the total cost to £18.93
Not bad I suppose...I'll probably etch and populate a PCB and test the circuit in the next post. That's all for now
Take care people - Langster!